Archive

News
Feb. 2, 2012

A Really Inconvenient Truth: Global Warming is Not Real

We have spent way too much time and money trying to fix a problem that many scientists say does not even exist. The days of believing in global warming need to end
News
Feb. 20, 2012

When the Payroll Tax Holiday Ends in 2013, Taxes Will Go Through the Roof

Come 2013, America is scheduled for its largest tax increase ever, and the majority of Americans will feel the impact deeply.
News
Feb. 20, 2012

Are Women in the Media Only Portrayed As Sex Icons? Statistics Show a Massive Gender Imbalance Across Industries

A recent report by the Women’s Media Center has provided dismaying statistical data on the status of women in U.S. media.
News
Feb. 7, 2012

Genetic Engineering Debate: Are There Lines We Shouldn't Cross?

Should we have the right to enhance our muscles, memory and moods through genetic modification? At what point should genetic engineering be forced to draw a line?
News
Feb. 6, 2012

Will the U.S. Military Go To War With Iran or Syria Next?

With the Iraq war officially ‘over,’ will the U.S. military turn its sights on Iran and/or Syria?
Feb. 25, 2012

Survival of the Fittest: How Homo Sapiens Outlasted Neanderthals to Become Modern-Day Humans

Homo sapiens outlived the stronger Neanderthals because they engaged in art (i.e. pottery and sculpture) to transmit culture and encourage community.
News
Feb. 22, 2012

Ron Paul Wins CNN Arizona Republican Debate

A convincing defense of liberty helped Paul take down his opponents in Wednesday's debate.
News
Feb. 29, 2012

Why the UN Isn't Saving Syria

The UN values state sovereignty too much to intervene against Assad.
Feb. 15, 2012

Why I Quit Facebook, and Why You Ought to Join Me

Facebook may be dominating social media, but it doesn't have to dominate your life. Quitting Facebook can and will improve your life by forcing you to nurture relationships and create new bonds.
Feb. 28, 2012
Feb. 10, 2012

What MIA's New "Bad Girls" Video Says About Arabs

Despite her penchant for political commentary, MIA's latest work seems to perpetuate tired stereotypes of the Arab world.
Feb. 1, 2012

From J.K. Rowling to Kristen Wiig, Top 5 Feminists of the 21st Century

Find out who made the list of top five most inspirational women who have promoted the feminist cause through their work.
Feb. 19, 2012

The Health Benefits of Call of Duty and Mario: Video Games Make Society A Better Place

Despite their often negative press, video games make life better for everyone.
News
Feb. 10, 2012

President Obama and George W. Bush Were Right to Bailout U.S. Auto Industry

Allowing the auto companies to fail in 2008 would have contributed to a second Great Depression.
News
Feb. 11, 2012

Boko Haram is Not Nigeria's Major Threat, Lack of Trust in the Government Is

Despite Nigeria's recent troubles, the real threat to the state is a crisis of trust which must be urgently addressed.
News
Feb. 19, 2012

Ron Paul Will Win the Presidency For Republicans: He is the Hope and Change Candidate of 2012

If Republicans hope to win in November, they must include the libertarian congressman on their eventual presidential ticket. Take a mental field trip with me here.
News
Feb. 13, 2012

The Dark Side of Valentine’s Day Flowers and Chocolates: Exploitation of Adults and Children

This Valentine's Day, consumers might want to think twice about their purchases of flowers and chocolate. Much of the world production for these products is made with abusive labor violations.
News
Feb. 11, 2012

Why the Federal Government, Not States, Should Regulate the Environment

National laws are necessary to protect the environment; state-specific regulations will not work.
News
Feb. 3, 2012

Catholic Universities That Receive Federal Funding Must Provide Access to Birth Control

President Obama's requirement that religiously-affiliated institutions like Catholic universities provide free access to birth control in their health care plans improves women's health.
News
Feb. 15, 2012

Felipe Calderon’s War Against Mexican Drug Cartels Has Opened Up Pandora's Box

After his attempt to crack down on drug cartels, Mexican President Felipe Calderón is leaving a Mexico torn by violence to whoever succeeds him after July's elections.
News
Feb. 2, 2012

Spain's Lost Millennial Generation? As Youth Unemployment Hits 50%, Spain's Future Could Suffer

The consequences of youth unemployment will affect the country as brain drain becomes a concern.
News
Feb. 3, 2012

Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez’s Daughter Poses With Justin Bieber, Contradicting Regime’s Socialist Rhetoric

Rosinés Chavez’s online behavior exposes the double standard of the Hugo Chavez regime and its out of touch "socialist" elites.
Feb. 13, 2012

Would Grammy Winner Adele Be a Ron Paul Supporter?

In the past few years, Adele has benefited enormously from her music. However, Adele has complained about how much of her income goes to the government.
News
Feb. 8, 2012

Why Millennials Aren't Happy

There are so many things to do, live up to, and plan for that millennials have collectively de-prioritized the one thing that matters most: happiness.
Feb. 17, 2012

Why Isn't Fox News Commentator Eric Bolling Being Fired For His "Crack Pipe" Comment?

Fox News personalities have a history of making controversial remarks. As ratings go higher, these comments are becoming more and more outrageous. Where is the journalistic integrity?
News
Feb. 15, 2012

Cincinnati High School Starts Paying Kids to Attend School: Are Incentives Good For Education?

Incentivizing attendance and behavior at school could be a good idea to better education.
News
Feb. 1, 2012

Flawed Studies Link Diet Soda To Weight Gain, Heart Attacks

Two bad studies and shrill media coverage wrongly linked diet soda to weight gain and poor cardiovascular health.
News
Feb. 4, 2012

Should the FDA Require Fast Food Establishments to Disclose That They Use Pink Slime?

McDonald's recently revealed it uses ammonia hydroxide in its burgers. Should the company be forced to reveal its practices to consumers?
Feb. 8, 2012

Pintrest Becomes First Major Social Networking Site Driven by Women

Pinterest has become a unique internet sensation appealing mostly to women.
Feb. 8, 2012

5 High School Girls Who Are Changing the World

From working for food security in Africa to fighting teenage substance abuse, these five teenage girls are empowering their communities.
News
Feb. 22, 2012

Who Won The Won Arizona Debate? Newt Gingrich Won Stealing Support From Rick Santorum

During The February 22 debate in Phoenix AZ, former Speaker Newt Gingrich threw a hail mary with his superior debating skills and rapier wit to try to get back into the game one last time.
News
Feb. 23, 2012

War Between Iran and Israel Almost Inevitable

War with Iran seems to be turning away from a mere possibility and more towards inevitability.
Feb. 25, 2012

Don't Shop at Walmart, Beware of Whole Foods' Libertarian Leaning, and 5 Tips to Being a Responsible Consumer

Here are 5 tips to help you spot corporate villains and heroes in the corporate world.
News
Feb. 22, 2012

Who is Winning the CNN Arizona GOP Debate? Rick Santorum, Mitt Romney, Newt Gingrich, Ron Paul Duke it Out

This will be a true battle royale. Can Romney take back the top spot from Santorum?
News
Feb. 3, 2012

Government Should Not Regulate Sugar Like Alcohol Or Tobacco to Curb Obesity

A team of scientists say sugar should be regulated like tobacco or alcohol, but their argument is inconsistent and dangerous.
News
Feb. 18, 2012

Euthanasia Helps Avoid Unnecessary Pain and Suffering

An individual, who is of sound mind, should be able to make the decision based upon his or her conscience without interference.
News
Feb. 3, 2012

Is a Job In Finance Still the Right Career Choice for Millennials?

With shrinking compensation pools, attrition and a negative public opinion of the financial industry; is going into finance the right career choice? That depends on what you want out of it.
Feb. 6, 2012

Facebook Success Shows Why Intellectual Property Laws Are Stifling

Facebook is a shining example of why IP laws stifle the market and distort what constitutes real property ownership.
News
Feb. 13, 2012

5 Things to Like About Mitt Romney

Romney gets a bad rap these days, especially from dog lovers, but here are five things to like about him as a candidate for president.
News
Feb. 6, 2012

Mining Merger of Glencore and Xstrata: The New 'Too Big to Fail' Behemoths

The pending $88 billion merger of Glencore and Xstrata has major ramifications for the world economy. It's time consumers and policymakers paid closer attention to the natural resource oligopoly.
News
Feb. 11, 2012

FDA-Required Calorie Counts for Fast Food Restaurants Will Not Curb the Obesity Epidemic

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is requiring that chain restaurants list calorie counts on their menus. This legislation is not a solution to the obesity issue that is plaguing our country.
News
Feb. 17, 2012

Hillary Clinton, Cory Booker and Kirsten Gillibrand: Potential Democratic Candidates For President in 2016

It’s not too early to start thinking about 2016. Here are the big names for that election, on the Democratic side.
News
Feb. 16, 2012

Why Are Millenials So Against Baby Boomers?

If millennials really want to save the world, they should stop blaming past generations for their problems, and follow these guidelines.
Feb. 14, 2012

Sexism, Stereotypes Fill Valentine's Day: Are Americans Stuck in a 'Mad Men' Dating Mentality?

Valentine’s Day dating advice shows that when it comes to relationships, we’re still stuck in an out-dated 1950s mentality.
News
Feb. 20, 2012

Whitney Houston's Death Highlights the Dangers of Xanax, a Drug That Really Isn't Worth It

Xanax, the nation’s ninth highest-earning drug, is a psychoactive drug that helps calm panic attacks. But is Xanax calming or a killer?
News
Feb. 14, 2012

UC Berkeley, Hampshire, and Columbia: Three Most Politically Active College Campuses

Every U.S. college campus has a political presence, but there are a particular few with a political fervor that reaches far beyond the norm.
News
Feb. 8, 2012

Smoking Causes Brain Damage? Why We Need Better Science Journalism

Media coverage of a recent study linking smoking to brain damage illustrates the problem with science journalism.
Feb. 10, 2012

With Hulu and Netflix, Will Millennials Ever Go Out to the Movie Theater Anymore?

DVDs, video games, Netflix, Hulu, and Vudu are keeping young people from the cinema, resulting in rising ticket prices and declining movie industry profits.
News
Feb. 23, 2012

7 Reasons Why Iran is Not a Threat to America

Iran has long been characterized by Western media and government as a dangerous, irrational theocracy that seeks to ignite a war, destroy Israel, and destabilize the Middle East. This is not accurate.
News
Feb. 26, 2012

EU's Controversial Carbon Tax on Airlines Highlights the Need for New Climate Change Legislation

The impending trade war triggered by the EU extending its emissions trading scheme to the aviation industry highlights the ineffectiveness of arguments of sovereignty in fighting climate change.
News
Feb. 27, 2012

Mitt Romney Won't Endorse Infantry Combat Roles for Women in the Military

The GOP candidates have yet to come out in favor of women serving in infantry positions in the military.
News
Feb. 27, 2012

To Build the American Dream 2.0, Start With Reforming U.S. Immigration Laws

Half of U.S-based startups were created by foreign born entrepreneurs, but U.S. immigration reform laws are making it harder for immigrants to create companies in America.
News
Feb. 27, 2012

Outdated GI Bill Cheats Our Veterans From College Education

Thousands of current and future veterans will miss out on a college education because the post 9/11 GI Bill is woefully outdated.
News
Feb. 6, 2012

Government Should Not Regulate the Free Market

We’d be better off overall if there were less government regulation in our lives.
News
Feb. 15, 2012

Would John McCain Win If He Ran Against President Barack Obama in the 2012 Election?

Though a race between McCain and Obama in 2012 would possibly be closer than in 2008, McCain would ultimately lose again.
Feb. 5, 2012

How the Zombies on 'The Walking Dead' Explain Economics

Although the show’s plot follows how survivors of a zombie apocalypse struggle to survive amidst both zombies and each other, it is also a crash course in some fundamental economic concepts.
News
Feb. 1, 2012

We Should Legalize Marijuana — And All Other Drugs

The strongest argument for the legalization of Marijuana is the damage it would do to cartels. One step won't do it, legalize them all.
News
Feb. 15, 2012

Today's Democrats Are Not Real Liberals

These days, a 'liberal' is usually considered to be someone who is pro-choice, anti-war, and in favor of gun control. But can these policy preferences really be called liberal?
News
Feb. 6, 2012

If Israel Goes to War With Iran, It Will Be Disaster

The conflagration that may spark from Israeli preemptive action against Iran will be a disaster for Israel.
News
Feb. 26, 2012

How Kraft Foods, Oreos, and Starbucks Coffee Have Taken Off in China

Despite government negativity, some U.S. companies have made great strides in developing their brands in China due to smarter practices and the force of the market.
News
Feb. 29, 2012

Iranian Oil and Petrodollars Are Real Threat to U.S., Not Iran's Nuclear Program

Iran is not developing nuclear weapons and it cannot ever threaten the American homeland. Why, then, is the war rhetoric escalating? Follow the money.
News
Feb. 16, 2012

Sports Illustrated Cover Girl Kate Upton Reinforces Positive Body Image For Women

Upton is a bold and commendable reassurance to young girls, showing that “normal” is beautiful.
News
Feb. 3, 2012

Do Politicians Need to Know English? Spanish-Speaking Politician in Arizona Barred From Ballot

The decision to disqualify an Arizona city council candidate for lack of sufficient English skills is an unprecedented development which highlights the growing challenge of bilingualism.
News
Feb. 3, 2012

U.S. Wrongly Demonizes Iran, But Ignores Nuclear Weapons Countries India, Pakistan, and Israel

Despite the U.S. government's obsession with demonizing Iran, there are other countries that pose a much greater threat to international peace.
News
Feb. 7, 2012

What if Barack Obama Had Listened to Joe Biden and Not Gone After Osama Bin Laden?

Joe Biden recently expressed his doubts behind the green light for the raid that killed Osama Bin Laden in May. Had Obama listened to the majority, OBL would still be alive.
News
Feb. 9, 2012

California's UC System Shows Why Privatizing Public Higher Education Is Not The Solution

The recent move toward privatization by using alternative sources to fund public higher education, such as tuition and private endowments, is the wrong step in finding a permanent solution.
Feb. 10, 2012

Amidst Birth Control Debate, Should the "Morning After" Pill Be Available in a Vending Machine?

The “morning after” pill has been available in a vending machine to students at Shippensburg University in Pennsylvania for about two years.
News
Feb. 23, 2012

Supreme Court Should Overturn Affirmative Action

Race should no longer play a part in admissions to places of higher education. By allowing the 2003 ruling to stand, affirmative action creates an advantage to students solely on race.
News
Feb. 27, 2012

#FreeFadi: Homage to a Friend Behind Bars

Fadi Quran is a physicist, an alternative-energy entrepreneur, a political activist, and has been my best friend since the age of five. Fadi dreams of freedom, justice, and dignity.
News
Feb. 17, 2012

An American War With Iran Will Not Happen, Iranian Nuclear Advances Will Lead to Inevitable Diplomacy

When it comes to nuclear management on the international level, in the long run confrontation has always given way to diplomacy.
News
Feb. 27, 2012

State Department Creates Global Youth Alliance to Promote Millennials Jobs and Entrepreneurship

In Tunisia, Hillary Clinton announced the U.S. is creating a new youth alliance and forming youth councils at U.S. embassies abroad to have direct contact with young people across the world.
News
Feb. 13, 2012

Why U.S. Politics is Immoral

[Office Hours] Something is rotten at the heart of American politics — something that is the exclusive province of neither liberal nor conservative, Democrat nor Republican.
Feb. 14, 2012

NCAA Sending Right Message to UCONN Basketball By Keeping Huskies From Post-Season

Academic standards are already low enough for student athletes and UCONN should have to meet them before being let off of their punishment.
News
Feb. 16, 2012

5 Things Americans Should Know About Working With the Poor in Central America

Operating principals in poor areas are not the same as in the first world. Here are five examples of how to improve our understanding of the developing world.
Feb. 17, 2012

New York Knicks Star Jeremy Lin Experiencing 'Black Swan' Effect

Jeremy Lin's on-court performance has triggered "Linsanity," a Black Swan event that is unprecedented, hugely impactful, and already starting to be explained away with hindsight.
News
Feb. 23, 2012

Muslim Brotherhood is Not the Hindrance to Egyptian Democracy, Egypt's Army Is

The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces' troubled stint in office is thoroughly documented. No true democratic transition can occur while the generals remain in power.
Feb. 27, 2012

Step Aside Jean Dujardin, Oscars Best Actor Award Goes to Mitt Romney

While the awards for Best Actor are already set in stone at this year's Oscars, Mitt Romney deserves mention for Best Visual Effects, Best Original Song, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Actor.
News
Feb. 12, 2012

Bank Bailouts: Why Barack Obama Very Much is a Socialist

Many conservatives say Barack Obama is a socialist. They're right, but for the wrong reasons.
Feb. 13, 2012

Whitney Houston 'Star-Spangled Banner' Performance Even Better Than Chart-Topping 'I Will Always Love You'

Whitney Houston's performance of the "Star-Spangled Banner" is one of the best renditions ever.
News
Feb. 14, 2012

Could Saudi Arabia and Iran Soon Engage in a Nuclear Cold War?

If Saudi Arabia goes nuclear, together with Iran, the Middle East will experience signifcant geopolitical shifts.
News
Feb. 16, 2012

America's Cozy Relationship With Saudi Arabia Shows Hypocrisy of U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East

America's inconsistent policy of supporting some Middle Eastern tyrants like Saudi Arabia, while chastise others like Syria is detrimental to our long-term interests in the region.
News
Feb. 16, 2012

To Curb Health Care Costs and National Debt, Barack Obama Promises Tobacco Free America In Second Term [Satire]

An anonymous source in the White House told PolicyMic: "As long we use big words and our press releases sound real science-y, we can get away with almost anything."
News
Feb. 16, 2012

President Obama's Broken Promise to Africa

President Obama could have played a key role in transforming Africa. But three years after his inauguration, he has instead veered away from embracing his father’s home continent.
News
Feb. 17, 2012

India Chooses France Over Russia and America in One of the Biggest Military Aircraft Deals Ever

America’s close cooperation with Pakistan certainly didn’t help it to secure its F-16 and F/A-18 bid with India.
Feb. 23, 2012

Rihanna 'Birthday Cake' Remix Featuring Chris Brown Challenges Our View of Victims of Domestic Violence [Audio]

Rihanna's decision to include Chris Brown on the 'Birthday Cake' remix forces us to confront the expectations, assumptions, and blame we, as a society, place on victims of domestic violence.
News
Feb. 24, 2012

California Sends Teenagers Free Condoms in the Mail to Curb Rising STDs and Promote Safe-Sex

California's mail-order condom program promotes safe-sex and helps teenagers lower their risk of contracting venereal diseases.
News
Feb. 25, 2012

Ron Paul Is Only Presidential Candidate Who Would Reduce the National Debt

Despite populist rhetoric from the GOP presidential field, Congressman Ron Paul is the only one who would reduce the national debt according to a nonpartisan study.
News
Feb. 6, 2012

Government Regulations Help Markets Work Better

The world is much safer today than it was 100 years ago, mostly because we are richer now, but also because we are comfortable imposing regulations that promote safety.
Feb. 10, 2012

This Week at PolicyMic: Rita Solomon on The Week, New Story Queue, & Your Feedback

Every Friday, the PolicyMic team highlights three cool things that happened on PolicyMic that week and outlines a few major questions that we need your help answering.
News
Feb. 28, 2012

America's Biggest Strength is the Constitution, and Biggest Weakness Our Inability to Understand It

America’s biggest strength and biggest weakness lies within our relationship between our founding documents and us.
Feb. 9, 2012

How Smart Phones Are Impacting Your Friendships

How are cell phones affecting our social relations? Does our heightened reliance reflect a greater desire to stay more connected to even more people?
News
Feb. 18, 2012

Millennials Struggle to Find Their Identity in a Chaotic World

Are we a generation of deep-set desire for affirmation, recommendation letters, and a longing to join hierarchal society? Or are we a generation of innovators?
News
Feb. 21, 2012

The Importance of Political Speeches in Determining the Quality of Presidents

The best way to judge a politician may be by the speeches they make during the worst of times. Can they speak from the heart, or do they just read the lines?
News
Feb. 24, 2012

Are Super PACs Good or Bad for Democracy?

Super PACs have dominated this year's election by allowing billionaires to donate millions to candidates indirectly. But, are they a good addition to elections or are they harming our democracy?
News
Feb. 21, 2012

Mayor Michael Bloomberg's New York City Anti-Smoking Campaign Produces Results, Yet Needs Improvement

Notwithstanding the credible gains of his campaign, Bloomberg would benefit from a strategy that prioritized the causes, and not merely the vastly-documented repercussions, of smoking.
News
Feb. 24, 2012

Time to End the War on Drugs and Legalize Meth

Current and past prohibitions show us that a War on Drugs will not and cannot succeed. It is time to adopt a policy that will raise money, reduce harm, and disenfranchise criminals.
News
Feb. 29, 2012

Are Charter Schools the Answer to the Public Education Problem?

Education reformers like Michelle Rhee and politicians like Rahm Emanuel often point at teacher unions for inefficiency in public schools. But are charter schools the answer?
News
Feb. 8, 2012

Incompetent Teachers Should Be Fired

Without job performance incentives, teachers will not improve or develop their skills. As a result, education quality diminishes and students pay the price.
News
Feb. 24, 2012

'Act of Valor', 'Call of Duty' and the Role of Entertainment in Military Recruitment

Movies and video games have long been used in military recruitment, Act of Valor will be no different.
News
Feb. 6, 2012

Millennial Nomads: Did We Peak in College?

After college and with no discernible future success, this millennial nomad has resigned herself to a life of relative failure.
News
Feb. 21, 2012

Why Do Elite Harvard, Princeton, and Ivy League College Students Still Go Into Finance?

In 2011, 35% of the Princeton senior class went into finance, showing that finance is still a boom industry that flourishes in our increasingly narcissistic culture.
Feb. 11, 2012

"Persecuted" Atheists in America Need a New Perspective

Atheists say they face discrimination in America, but in other parts of the world, people are killed for their religious convictions.
Feb. 1, 2012

The No Spin Zone: Social Media Has Rendered Media Bias Obsolete

Despite the cacophony of accusations that come from both sides of the aisle, media bias might not be as much of a problem as once thought.
Feb. 23, 2012

Supreme Court Should Uphold Affirmative Action in Fisher v. University of Texas

The Supreme Court should preserve affirmative action in the case of Fisher v. University of Texas because African-Americans and Hispanics do not yet have the same opportunities as white students.
Feb. 1, 2012

Sports Can Help Teach Leadership in Politics

Athletics provide valuable life lessons in politics, leadership, and success.
News
Feb. 1, 2012

U.S. Must Wait To Decrease Dependence on Fossil Fuels, Green Energy Will Take Time

Green energy is not yet ready to become the primary source of electricity within the U.S. Until that day arrives, we need to accept the continued use of fossil fuels.
News
Feb. 1, 2012

Falling Education Rates Leading to Higher Prison Populations, More Poverty

During Obama's State of the Union Address, our decreasing high school graduation rates were addressed – a possible cause of both the poverty and imprisonment concern.
News
Feb. 1, 2012

Florida Primary Results: Mitt Romney Wins Big, Newt Gingrich Stumbles, Rick Santorum and Ron Paul Fail to Have Impact

Florida is Romney country as the former governor wins in a landslide victory.
Feb. 1, 2012

With Facebook IPO Set, James Breyer, Peter Thiel, Dustin Moskovitz Set to Make Billions

As Facebook releases its IPO, hundreds of employees will become millionaires. These key people, though, will make much more than that.
Feb. 1, 2012

Are Too Many Rights With Too Few Responsibilities Creating Our Nation's Problems?

Do you see the integrity regarding rights and responsibilities of this nation in balance or imbalanced?
Feb. 21, 2012

Your Sex Life is the Biggest Determiner For the Quality of Your Marriage

We cannot minimize the importance of sexual relationships in a marriage.
News
Feb. 1, 2012

Mitt Romney's Self-Deportation Plan for Illegal Immigrants is Harmful

As a solution to illegal immigration, self-deportation creates more problems than it solves.
News
Feb. 2, 2012

Congress Should Vote to Make the District of Columbia a State

Congress should use its authority under Article 4 of the Constitution to admit the District as a new state.
Feb. 2, 2012

Super Bowl 2012: Are You Ready for Some Football?

As a snooty European, I have almost no interest in American football, but as an Indianapolis resident, it’s difficult to avoid the carnival atmosphere that has begun to pervade "Nap Town."
News
Feb. 14, 2012

To Ease Airport Lines, TSA Expands Expedited Security Screening Across U.S.

TSA announced the expansion of PreCheck, an expedited screening initiative. But, while it will be available at more airports, the program is still available only to a limited number of travelers.
News
Feb. 15, 2012