Last week, in wake of the Boston Marathon manhunt, James Gleick wrote this of the chaotic news coverage, which was rife with inaccuracies: “If there ever was a dividing line between cyberspace and what we used to call ‘the real world,’ it vanished last week.”
This division between "real world" and the virtual one has never existed where we are concerned and yet, this idea, enshrined in technology as a "disembodiment" pervades laws, policies, etc. When women engage online, they do not have the gender-luxury or the sex-based entitlement of feeling disembodied. This concept of safe distance and space as protection is a norm that only men really have access to. A real world sex-based safety gap is reflected in the fact that 75% of online abuse is targeted at women. So, for example, in the United States, 89% of men surveyed feel that they can safely walk at night in their neighborhoods. That number is only 62% for women. From the moment of its inception, the Internet’s amplified this gap. It extends “real world” violence against women and regularly enables actual physical, in addition to hard-to-quantify, psychological harm. No girl or woman has the luxury of assuming there is a disconnect between the virtual and the “real.” Especially given statistics about sexual assault and intimate partner violence.
In particular, the realities of stalking speak most clearly to the reality of women’s fully integrated experiences. Every year more than 6 million people in the United States are stalked. According to the CDC's National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS), one in 6 women and one in 19 men are stalked during their lifetimes. Less conservative estimates that define stalking as a reflection of fear felt by targets makes those numbers 1 in 4 women and one in 13 men. The most recent Bureau of Justice statistics reveal the following:
-46% of stalking victims experience at least one unwanted contact per week.
-11% of victims are stalked for 5 years or more.
-Divorced or separated people have significantly higher risk — 34 per 1,000 individuals.
-Male (37%) and female (41%) stalking victims are as likely equally to go to the police.
-1 in 4 stalking victims report cyber stalking, for example 83% get e-mails from their stalkers.
-46% of stalking victims feel fear from not knowing what will happen next.
-Almost 75% of stalking victims know their stalkers.
-More than 50% of stalking victims lose 5 or more days from work.
People between the ages of 18-24 are the most likely to be stalked. College and university women, who make up the bulk of victims, experience stalking in multivariate ways, but one of the most common is electronically. According to a nationwide study conducted in 2000, 13% of college women reported being stalked. An earlier study reported that between 27% and 35% of female students 15% and 18% of male students are stalked. Last summer, Campus Safety Magazine ran a series of articles about stalking, which they called a “silent epidemic” on campuses.
Stalking is integrated seamlessly with cyber stalking, specifically defined by Take Back the Tech as: “(repeatedly) sending threats or false accusations via email or mobile phone, making threatening or false posts on websites, stealing a person’s identity or data or spying and monitoring a person’s computer and internet use. Sometimes the threats can escalate into physical spaces.”
Anti-stalking legislation — which differs state-by-state and across borders — requires that, in order to be recognized, a stalker demonstrate a repeated pattern of harassing behavior. Statues are often deliberately broad and take into account responses of the victim.
These two factors — the broad nature and the question of victim responses — make a false separation between “virtual” and “real” so impactful for women. Online threats are often treated as jokes, dismissed as “not credible,” and the harm minimized, even though the impact of stalking can be significant. Women who live public lives are often stalked, sometimes by cyber mobs making explicit, graphic and violent threats. Without fail they are belittled for expressing anxiety or for changing their behavior as the result of fear. When Cambridge University student debater Rebecca Meredith became the target of a vicious and misogynistic online mob assault in which her rape potential was debated publicly, a writer in the Spectator made a point of mocking her publicly for making a “fuss about ‘misogyny.’” Silly girl.
Cases where victims do not know their stalkers often take place entirely online, as in the recent examples of UConn student Carolyn Luby, Trista Hendren, Mary Beard, Adria Richards, Anita Saarkeesian, and Meredith, all of whom experienced cyberstalking as the result of speaking out against sexism.
Stalking has serious impact on victims who suffer from stress, fear, anxiety, depression, loss of sleep, and other health and psychological trauma. They often change their behavior, work, and recreational activities. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) reports that when victims know their stalkers they are three times as likely to report these symptoms.
In addition, there are economic consequences as well. Victims often miss work, lose jobs, cannot take advantage of promotions. NIJ studies found that victims who work, “experienced twice as many stalking tactics and were stalked three times longer than unemployed victims.” Stalkers often compromise their target’s ability to work by harassing and lying to coworkers, vandalizing workplaces and other similar tactics designed to destabilize their targets.
Lastly, targets also experience property loss or incur expenses (such as security systems, altered travel needs) and the costs to society are high. One study referenced by the NIJ concluded that intimate partner stalking cost $342 million annually in 2003 dollars. Researchers explained that this was a significant underestimate given that several significant cost categories were not included.
Stalking Risk Profile: Guidelines for the Assessment and Management of Stalkers, assesses stalkers on the basis of their prior relationships with their targets: ex-intimates, strangers, or acquaintances. Two-thirds of stalkers make harassing or threatening contact with their victims at least once per week the vast majority (78%) use more than one means of approach. In 20% of cases they use weapons. Fully one third of stalkers have stalked before. Sometimes, when the stalking takes place online, one person stalks multiple targets simultaneously. Last week, a New York man was charged in Federal court with cyber-stalking 15 women across the country after a University of Michigan student approached the police with her concerns.
Stalking is tightly related to other forms of violence, especially domestic violence and sexual assault. As with these dimensions of sex and gender-based violence, early education, institutional intolerance and bystander intervention training are essential to reducing incidences of harm.
Women’s Health, a project of the Department of Health and Human Services, has useful guidelines for steps to take if you think you are being stalked.